Engineering tools and databases on Sediment Transport and Morphology

The toolkit goes together with the book: Principles of Sedimentation and Erosion Engineering in Rivers, Estuaries and Coastal Seas.
Models are regularly updated (each year);  see website of publisher

Various simple engineering models and validation data sets are available to compute transport and sedimentation volumes:
(LITTORAL is freeware and can be downloaded; see below)


Point model (Fortran) for computation of sand transport in current-wave conditions.

Fortran model for computation of cross-shore and longshore sand transport rates and morphological changes along coastal profiles including banks, feeder berms, mining pits, sand reefs; computation of dune and beach erosion during storms.
This model is a very advanced cross-shore profile model (Fortran code) which computes the cross-shore distribution of:

1) wave height,
2) longshore and cross-shore flow velocity,
3) peak orbital velocities (including asymmetry effects),
4) bed load and suspended load transport (using a single-fraction or multi-fraction method),
5) morphological changes (including dune erosion).

The CROSMOR profile model is a probabilistic model (wave by wave model) which simulates the propagation, transformation (shoaling) and breaking of individual waves along a cross-shore profile, which is assumed to be uniform in longshore direction. Statistical parameters are computed from the results of the individual waves. The individual waves shoal until an empirical criterion for breaking is satisfied. Wave height decay due to bottom friction and breaking is modelled by using an energy dissipation method. Wave-induced set-up and set-down and breaking-associated longshore and cross-shore currents are also modelled. The near-bed orbital velocities of the high-frequency waves (low-frequency effects are neglected) are described by the method of Isobe and Horikawa to account for wave asymmetry effects in the nearshore zone (forward peak orbital velocity is larger then backward peak orbital velocity). The depth-averaged return current (UR) under the wave trough of each individual wave (summation over wave classes) is derived from linear mass transport and the water depth (ht) under the trough. Streaming in the wave boundary layer due to viscous and turbulent diffusion of fluid momentum is taken into account. The streaming (ub) in the wave boundary layer is of the order of  5% of the peak orbital velocity and generally onshore-directed in deeper water (symmetric waves).
The sediment transport rate of the model is determined for each wave (or wave class), based on the computed wave height, depth-averaged cross-shore and longshore velocities, orbital velocities, friction factors and sediment parameters. The net (averaged over the wave period) total sediment transport is obtained as the sum of the net bed load (qb) and net suspended load (qs) transport rates. The net bed-load transport rate is obtained by time-averaging (over the wave period) of the instantaneous transport rate using a formula-type of approach.
Special versions are available for depoistion and erosion in river reservoirs.

Fortran model for computation of longshore sediment transport and coastline changes.

1) sand or gravel (shingle) transport,
   (three formulae are available: CERC, KAMPHUIS and VAN RIJN),

2) coastline changes (including structures such as groynes).

Coastline changes can be computed by considering the sand continuity equation for the littoral zone (surf zone) with an alongshore length of DX, a cross-shore length of DY  and a vertical layer thickness (h). The sand balance reads as (see upper plot):

   h [d(Ys)/dt] + d(Qs)/dx - qs=0

with: Ys=cross-shore position of shoreline, x=longshore coordinate, h=thickness of active littoral zone layer, Qs=longshore transport, qs=source, sink or cross-shore transport contribution.

This expression states that: a coastal section will erode if more sand is carried away than supplied; vice versa coastal accretion will occur if there is a net supply of sand.
The longshore sand or gravel transport depends on the angle of the wave direction at the breaker line and the shoreline angle.

Fortran model for the time-dependent computation of sediment concentrations (mud and sand) over the tidal cycle along a varying bed profile in combined current and wave conditions. The two-dimensional vertical advection-diffusion equation including time-dependent term is solved on a numerical grid. The mixing coefficients and the settling velocity are depending on the sediment concentrations. The effect of turbulence damping  in the near-bed zone due to suspended sediment is included. The sediment mixing coefficient over the water depth due to current and waves is represented by flexible expressions which can be easily calibrated to represent measured sediment concentrations. The model is especially suitable for the computation of sediment deposition in dredged channels perpendicular or oblique to the main flow direction, The model can also be used to compute the erosion of underwater mounds or reef berms. The model has a short user-friendly input file to perform quick-scan studies. Typical run times are 1 minute for one tidal cycle. Results of many validation cases are available.


Point model for computation of annual longshore sediment transport.
Download here: Littoral.xls

Point models for computation of tidal sand/mud transport.

Model for computation of turbidity currents of fine sand/mud along slopes.

Tool for computation of sediment parameters (critical stress, fall velocity, bulk density).

Tool for computation of siltation in shipping channels, trenches and pits in currents and waves.

Tool for computation of siltation in harbour basins.

Tool for computation of sediment deposition in reservoirs in rivers.

Tool for computation of sand transport and associated sedimentation and erosion in a streamtube (varying width).

Point model for computation of sediment concentrations and transport due to near-bed jets.

Tool for computation of local scour near various structures.

Box model for computation of deposition and erosion in tidal back-barrier systems including sea level rise.

Model for computation of horizontal sediment dispersion of mud and sand concentrations from source location (dredging plumes).

Tool for computation of size and mass of stones, rocks and concrete elements of emerged and submerged breakwaters, dikes etc.

Tool for computation of consolidation of soft mud-sand layers.


Time Averaged Parameters of sand transport in flume and field conditions.

Time Averaged Parameters of sand transport in flume and field conditions including  time series.

Selection of high-quality data of sand transport in field conditions (rivers, estuaries and coastal seas) for testing of sand transport formulae.

Set of tables of sedimentation data of trenches and channels in rivers, estuaries  and coastal seas.

Cross-shore data of hydrodynamics, sand transport and morphodynamics at Egmond beach, The Netherlands.

Cross-shore data of hydrodynamics, sand transport  and morphodynamics in Delta flume of Delft Hydraulics.